A typical seedling in the 2-leaf stage, 14 days after emergence, will have a root that is 15 cm (6 in.) Each seed has an attached pappus which allows for wind dispersal. The University of Alberta Press/Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta. Canada Thistle Despite its common name, this invasive thistle is not native to Canada, but actually native throughout Europe and Northern Asia. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Plants die after the first killing frost. The species spreads by creeping roots which in turn causes Canada thistle to often form dense patches. Canada thistle is difficult to control once it is established on a site. Guide to the Weeds in British Columbia, https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hra/Plants/weedsbc/GuidetoWeeds.pdf [2016, May 30]. It stores food energy in its extensive root system both to survive the winter and to fuel the plant's reproductive drive the following season. Seed production averages 1,500 seeds per plant, but these remain viable for only a few years (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). It differs from other species in the same genus given its dioecious flowers. Insect biocontrol agents have been released on both musk thistle and Canada thistle with limited success. Plants are either male or female (dioecious) so cross pollination is necessary for seed production. The Canada thistle is part of the Cirsium genus, in the subtribe Carduinae, trube Cardueae and family Astreracae. The immature achenes of nodding thistle have filamentous pappus hairs and Canada thistle has plumose hairs. Seedlings produced from seeds emerge from soil depths of 1/4- to 1/2-inch. Seeds mature rapidly and are able to germinate within eight to 10 days after pollination. The dioecious character of Canada thistle was first reported in … Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a perennial that has plagued farmers in America since European settlement, and is a Noxious Weed in Pennsylvania. Canada thistle is a non-native perennial forb that reproduces/spreads from seed and rhizomes. Emergence: Seedlings produced from seeds emerge from soil depths of 1/4- to 1/2-inch. Plant produce viable seeds 8 to 10 days after flower emergence with an average plant producing 1500 seeds. In fact, Canada thistle is older than Canada itself. Cultivated fields, old fields, gardens, lawns, pastures, fence lines, shores, thickets, open forests, roadsides, railway lines and other disturbed areas (Darbyshire 2003Footnote 3). Executive Office Montana Weed Control Association, Inc. PO Box 315, Twin Bridges, MT 59754 (406) 684-5590 | (888) 664-4153 (fax) Canada thistle flower bud (E. Burns, NDSU) The key to using crop rotations to manage Canada thistle is growing crops with different life cycles than the weed. Wind and moving water can distribute seeds, but seeds often stay within a few meters of the parent plant. Compare an artichoke and a thistle, and notice that they are very similar, except in size. Its root system can extend more than fifteen feet out and six feet down from the plant, making management difficult. Seed production averages 1,500 seeds per plant, but these remain viable for only a few years (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). 3. It it also different from other native North American species given its large roots and … Planting competitive crops, such as alfalfa and forage … Canada thistle can produce up to 1,500 seeds per flowering shoot. Dispersal Mechanisms: Creeping roots can be moved from field to field on tillage equipment. Canada thistle can reproduce by seed and has male and female flowers on separate plants. So, if you disturb the soil and break the rhizomes into pieces, they simply develop into new plants. It is scattered throughout California to about 5900 feet (1800 m). It was likely one of the first weeds introduced by North American settlers in the 1600s as a contaminant in seeds. Canada thistle is native to Europe. Other agents have been studied, but eliminated for various reasons. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) Plants can spread vegetatively and over long distances by its seed. Flowers are pink, bristly, 1/2 inch long and wide. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Combining control methods is the best form of Canada thistle management. It was introduced to North America in the 1600s, probably in agricultural seed shipments and is now widespread throughout the United States and Canada. Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act. Plants die after the first killing frost. Frequently tilling may also reduce populations if continued for a few years. Canada thistle overwinters in the rosette growth stage. Canada thistle is a perennial weed that has soft green, deeply lobed, spear-like leaves and these leaves have sharp barbs on them. Seed production is usually completed in early July. Brouillet, L., Coursol, F., Favreau, M. and Anions, M. 2016. Canada thistle invades natural areas such as prairies, savannas, open areas in forests, and dunes if some degree of disturbance already exists. Planting date: Most likely will not affect Canada thistle infestations. Consequently, individual plants (and in some instances entire patches) may be seedless. Canada thistle grows over a wide range of habitats and elevations, preferring rich loam soils (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). FGIS 9180.16 - Inspection of Export Lots of Soybeans for Ragweed Seeds (pdf) 07/22/1999 FMD-PPMAB. Plants are either male or female (dioecious) so cross pollination is necessary for seed production. Canada thistle, a perennial broadleaf plant, is found in most of the western states except for southern Sierra Nevada, the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, and the Channel Islands. The stems are hairy. However, seeds have been found to germinate from 3 … Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Life Cycle: Perennial. Canada thistle spreads both by seeds and by budding from underground roots. Birds pictured: One Pine Siskin and two American Goldfinches, a heap of Common Redpolls (We fed about 70 of these birds for a month in 2013. Canada thistle plant beginning to elongate in spring. Canada Thistle produces flowers from about June until August. Perennial. Seeds of Canada thistle were likely introduced as a contaminant of crop seed in the late 18th century (Moore 1975Footnote 4). Persistence is imperative so the weed is continually stressed, forcing it to exhaust root nutrient stores and eventually die.Canada thistle (Cir… 2002. If allowed to go to flower, the flower is a purple pom-pom shape that will be produced in clusters at the top of the plant. 13. 1975. 2003. Because of its contribution to the persistence of the weed, Canada thistle's extensive root system must be the target of an effective control program. Seed may be transported by water, animals, farm equipment and other vehicles, and in contaminated crop seed. Elongate achene; straight to slightly curved, tapering at the base and truncate at the top, Achene fibrous and woody texture, thin longitudinal furrows can be seen with magnification, Narrow pale collar at the top of the achene, Immature achenes can have plumose pappus hairs. However, seeds have been found to germinate from 3-inch soil depths. The late-season flowers produce seeds with little damage from the weevil, … Flower Seed Head. They ate anything, but by far, they preferred Nyjer. ) Canada thistle is a non-native perennial forb that reproduces/spreads from seed and rhizomes. Nodding thistle achenes have a similar size, shape and colour as Canada thistle. The plan must include proper crop rotation. Canada thistle plants can also produce a lot of seed that can be distributed long distances by wind, water, and animals. Canada Thistle or Creeping Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Aster Family / Thistle SubfamilyBy Thomas J. Elpel with additions by Pamela G. Sherman About Canada Thistle: Thistles belong to the Thistle Subfamily of the Aster Family, along with artichokes. Repeated mowing to weaken stems and prevent seeding is also effective in low level infestations. Some livestock have been known to graze on Canada thistle at different life stages (see Chapter 5). A dense patch of thistle may need to be grazed more than once during the summer to prevent seed set. Please refer to E-434, "MSU Weed Control Guide for Field Crops," for herbicide recommendations. Specific Controls Fields with extensive seed germination should be retilled or treated with herbicide within 40 days ater the seeds germinate to prevent deep root development. The majority of Canada thistle stems originate from vegetative rootstocks rather than seed, producing a rosette in the spring. Seeds are dark brown and only 1/8 inch long. Tillage: Tillage, mowing and other forms of mechanical control have been deemed ineffective for control. Male and female flowers are produced on separate plants. Control Canada thistle in roadsides, field roads, and fencerows. This information is for educational purposes only. VASCAN, the database vascular plants of Canada, http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/ [2016, May 30]. Emerges in spring and flowers when days are the longest. In Indiana, Canada thistle normally initiates growth in spring, reaches the flower-bud stage the first week in June, and full flower about the third week of June. Two years before confederation, legislation required farmers to cut the weed 1. Introduced into the United States around 1750. The plant reproduces by seeds and dense patches of shoots emerge from creeping roots. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. It reproduces through both seed and root regeneration, but the latter is the most successful. Worldwide: Native to most of Europe and temperate Asia to as far south as India and Nepal. Canada thistle is diecious, which means male and female flowers occur on separate plants. C. thistle invading a disturbed area from perennial rootstocks. It is found throughout the northern half of the United States and southern Canada. NebGuide: Canada thistle (CIAR4) OK-OSU Extension-Thistles and their Identification (CIAR4) Ohio State University: Identifying noxious weeds (CIAR4) Purdue University: Control practices for Canada thistle (CIAR4) The Nature Conservancy: Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program (CIAR4) UC Davis, IPM: abstract & images (CIAR4) Generally, new shoots begin to form in January. Canada thistle was introduced from Europe and is one of the most feared weeds in the United States. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch. 2. Canada thistle requires a multi-year, integrated control strategy. Flowering occurs late spring into summer in response to 14-hour days and are pink to purple in color. Seed can remain viable in soil up to 20 years, and deep burial promotes survival longevity. Nodding thistle achenes have a smooth, varnish-like surface with transverse markings, while the achenes of Canada thistle are fibrous and woody with thin furrows and no transverse lines. Introduced to North America, Argentina, Chile, Iceland, Greenland, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2). Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a persistent perennial weed that causes significant crop yield losses. Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences. The weevils can reduce seed production by nearly 80 percent, but they are attracted more to early-blooming than late-blooming flowers. It also produces deep creeping rhizomes that allow it to survive below norm… Canada thistle is a cool season perennial which spreads by seed and vegetatively by creeping roots. It also produces deep creeping rhizomes that allow it to survive below normal tillage depths (Royer and Dickinson 1999Footnote 6). Canada Thistle reproduces by seeds and roots. Repeated tillage at 7 to 28 day intervals for up to 4 years can be effective on infestations of Canada thistle. The seed weevil Rhinocyllus conicus was introduced from Eurasia to control musk thistle by reducing seed production. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Infests crops including wheat, corn, peas, beans, sugar beets and potatoes, as well as pastures and rangelands (Moore 1975Footnote 4). Not Your Average Thistle The key to Canada thistle's weediness is its root system. USDA-ARS 2016. Emerges in spring and flowers when days are the longest. FGIS 9180.17 - Inspection of Export Wheat Lots for Canadian Thistle Seed (pdf) 01/04/2011 FMD-PPMAB. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. If you bring hay on-farm, use a reliable source. Physical description Canada thistle is a perennial that spreads by seed and an underground system of vertical and horizontal roots. It also invades wet areas with fluctuating water levels such as streambanks, sedge meadows, and wet prairies. Tillage can increase the problem by spreading vegetative propagules. The California Crop Improvement Association (CCIA) charged with certifying seed fields states the following: “We have a zero tolerance for prohibited weeds in any class of certified fields. Thistle heads: Bull (L), Canada (R). Herbaceous perennial, 2-6.5’ tall with upright, grooved stems that branch near the top of the plant. Adventitious shoots (vegetative propagules) from creeping roots can come up from greater depths. Ater 40 days, the developed roots could survive disking or some herbicide treatments. It can reproduce from small stem fragments or seeds. Seed production requires male and female plants to grow in the same area because Canada thistle is dioecious. Canada thistle has an extensive underground root system that may penetrate the soil to a depth of 10 feet or more and grow laterally 12 to 15 feet per year. Crop rotation: Canada thistle populations have been shown to be reduced by the use of a summer annual cover crop such as sudangrass (See the cover crop chapter in IWM: Fine Tuning the System). Moore, R. J. Moderate shoot densities have been shown to reduce spring wheat yield and alfalfa seed yield by up to 50%. Canadian: Occurs in all provinces and territories except NU (Brouillet et al. clods can stimulate seed germination of Canada thistle. When buried at greater depths (7-inches or more) and left undisturbed seeds have been found to be viable for up to 30 years. Its deep roots are the real issue. Canada thistle grows over a wide range of habitats and elevations, preferring rich loam soils (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). For interest's sake, I found some Canada Thistle seed and placed it alongside Nyjer. 1. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55: 1033-1048. Once a population of Canada thistle takes root, it can be really hard to conquer. Don't let it get established! Canada thistle inhabits … A map showing the distribution of Canada thistle in Iowa in 1898 indicated isolated infestations in only 25 counties. Sequential herbicide applications may be necessary for control. Darbyshire, S. J. Exclusion and sanitation: Avoid spreading thistle roots, shoots, and seeds by implements such as mowers between fields. The seeds of this broadleaf perennial can go dormant for up to 20 years 2, but only about 10% of Canada thistle is spread through seed 1. Prefers perennial and no-till cropping systems and rangelands. Pammel assumed the lack of seed was due to Canada thistle being poorly adapted to the environment of the western Corn Belt. It is considered “noxious” in 43 states and is found on every continent except Antarctica. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. The top peg is thicker and wider in nodding thistle. This could include tillage, patch mowing, in-crop herbicides, and pre-harvest and post- harvest herbicides. a seed-head fly found in Canada and the United States) can be responsible for 20 to 80% seed predation. Seed production allows for local and long distance reproduction. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN), https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx [2016, May 30]. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.). Application timing and effectiveness: Most susceptible to herbicides between the bud and flower stages of Canada thistle. 2016Footnote 1). Avoid crops with poor competitive ability and no in-crop herbicide options (e.g., lentils, field peas). The biology of Canadian weeds. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. It is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions, and spreads vigorously by wind-borne seeds and by way of its extensive, creeping root system. Predation/grazing: When present Orellia ruficauda (i.e. Weeds of Canada and the Northern United States. Production Range: Seed production ranges from 1,500 to 5,300 seeds per plant. Roots are abundant, deep and creeping, forming a dense patch much the same as bindweed. It is difficult to control because its extensive root system allows it to recover from control attempts. Seeds of Canada thistle were likely introduced as a contaminant of crop seed in the late 18th century (Moore 1975Footnote 4). Longevity: Low to moderate persistence - when buried 1 to 3-inches in the soil 45 to 60% of seed germinates the first year and less than 1% survives after 3 to 5 years. Introduced into the United States around 1750. Canada thistle is a prohibited weed in certified seed production, so check your fields regularly and keep it out. Flowering occurs late spring into summer in response to 14-hour days and are pink to purple in color. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Mode(s) of Reproduction: Most local reproduction is from creeping roots. One treatment or a combination of treatments may need to be used to control populations depending on the site. Ottawa, ON. Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. 4. Royer, F. and Dickinson, R. 1999. Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries. The key to control is recognizing the problem and being persistent with control measures. Use tested seed when planting row middles to minimize the risk of contamination with weed seeds (Figure 2). long, with as … FGIS 9180.18 - Special Quality Factor Information for Wheat and Malting Barley Shipments to the European Union (pdf) 04/21/2003 FMD-PPMAB Larvae develop in the flower head and consume the seed as it develops. Dormancy: Though most seed is capable of germinating upon dispersal in the fall it enters secondary dormancy during the winter months.
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