Cassava peelings (Figure 5(b)) were the second most used. Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. Fishing camps have been widely established throughout them, and mangrove wood is harvested for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. Those who said the forests were becoming depleted supported their opinion by saying that the distance between where the wood is cut and where it is sold is increasing all the time. For many people, it is their sole livelihood. This is supported by Ngoma (2005) who found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 5 to 12 hr. A suspended wooden banda may last only 5 months, although, on average, traditional oven lasts about 6 years compared to 13 years for a cinderblock oven. Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21), Biology and distribution of mangrove crabs in the Wouri River Estuary, Douala, Cameroon, Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique des poissons Etmalosz fimbriata et Sardinella aurita fumés traditionnellement [Assessment of the microbiological quality of Etmalosz fimbriata and Sardinella aurita fish traditionally smoked], The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. Resource renewal is also threatened, as long-term conservation plans are not in operation in most areas, and little or nothing is being done to address the overconsumption of this resource. This study found that 99.59% of respondents use traditional ovens. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. In this Florida Keys fishing video, join us for a day of flats fishing in the lower keys on our flats boat. Although wood smoking contributes to the physicochemical properties of fish, it does not always achieve fish smokers’ goals. They use the oldest trees because large logs keep the fire going without refueling. This is not the case in all countries. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. Population growth has greatly increased the pressure on these resources in recent years. Pouokam (2011) found that only 75% of fish smokers have preference for wood. Rhizophora is especially popular because its wood is heavy, burns with even heat and gives off little smoke. These were suspended iron bandas (Figure 9(a)), suspended wooden bandas (Figure 9(b)), or circular ovens (Figure 9(c)). However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. A modern cinderblock oven, on the other hand, requires only 5 hr to smoke 160 kg of fish and consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 10€. The indigenous people at the study sites belong to the Kory, Isangele, Oroko, and Balong tributes (Fomete & Tchanou, 1998). N. Z. Feka, Chuyong, and Ajonina (2009) found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 30% less than a traditional oven. A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, such as hard wood, soft wood, and coconut shell. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. It is now widely recognized, however, that conservation legislation is of fundamental importance to successful mangrove management systems (Van Lavieren et al., 2012 cited in Z. N. Feka, 2015). In Cameroon, while there are mangrove protection laws, their implementation has not been effective (Din et al., 2017). The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. (a) Plantain and cassava peel. Image Credit: DarylGlass/iStock/Getty Images The oily texture and strong flavor of mullet make it a good choice for smoking. I would also like to thank the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Limbe-batoke station, for enabling access to the research area, and for providing personnel, equipment, much good work, and knowledge. A few (17%) are Cameroonian. What is the main type of wood used as fuel, what does it cost, and where does it come from? A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, There are 524 suppliers who sells mangrove wood on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. Forests are clearly under great pressure. Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. The Pearson r linear correlation test was performed to determine the degree of correlation between the amount of wood used and the quantity of fish smoked. (2014) the sector is characterized by high levels of illiteracy 85%, 89%, and 95%, respectively. Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. Globally, mangrove forests are the most threatened tropical ecosystem and are being degraded and depleted at alarming rates (Polidoro et al., 2010). The Pearson Correlation Test (r = .952) showed a strong correlation between the amount of wood consumed and the number of fish smoked. Firewood origin according to respondents. (2014) suggest that this demand is because of taste of smoked fish. Thus, type 1 error levels (i.e., reject the null hypothesis when true) are not guaranteed. Get your smoke from wood – This may seem obvious. Figure 10. Several oven types were used in the study sites, but 99.6% of fish smokers used a traditional oven (banda). The largest scale fish smokers in the study area were Ghanaian, the majority of whom (62%) were located in Idenau. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. The study site is a coastal area, where there are many elongated banks of dry land. In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. The wildlife is dominated by vertebrate such as fish, birds, and reptiles, but there are also invertebrates such as crabs and molluscs (Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014). The initiative stops the deforestation of mangrove wood as the women now use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke the fish. We can create ovens that consume less wood," he said. The different uses of mangrove wood were similar in all sites, but the quantities of wood extracted from different sites varied, with sites of high fish landings registering the highest fuel-wood turnover. View or download all the content the society has access to. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). NB: Other refers to wood species very rarely used (species that have been cited less than 5 times in total). According to Degnon et al. For fish it is recommended to use mild woods like apple, cherry or alder to prevent overpowering the flavor of the meat. This ratio is more than twice what we found in our study, which is probably due to differences in size and species of the fish (Ngoma, 2005). We have classified large-scale fish smokers as those who spend a sum greater than or equal to 150€ per month. Wood utilization intensity in study site according to respondents. Figure 3 shows wood utilization intensity in our study sites. The Implications of Wood Exploitation for Fish Smoking on Mangrove Ecosystem Conservation in th... Mongabay.com Scientific Journal, Tropical Conservation Science, Reaches its Second Year of Existence, Angoni, H., Tatchim, A. P., Nkonmeneck, B. Indeed, there was no significant difference (F = 1.761, df = 242, p = .138) between wood quantities used and respondents’ age groups. Chabi et al. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. These were selected according to their location (proximity to the IRAD)—as we needed to visit them 4 times a week. However, Pouokam (2011), who worked on the firewood sector in the Kribi fisheries, found that smokers used Sambi (Uapaca guineensis). NB: Because the observation numbers of each variable were not equal, we used the harmonic mean of the group sizes. In Eyengue, it was sold in lots (see Figure 7), which comprise 120 pieces (see Figure 7) and cost 46€. It also cools the fire. uuid:f2839f3c-b169-4c67-9999-8eb88f192f10 They are also safer to use, in that they do not generate as much heat and smoke as traditional ovens, and they smoke fish more cleanly (so that the fish are less carcinogenic). More wood is used in Down Beach, and Eyengue, and particularly in Idenau, than in other communities. The strong, red mangrove wood gives fish a golden look and pungent smoky taste. For the same amount (160 kg) and species of fish, a cinderblock oven consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 4€, with a smoking time of 5 and a traditional oven consumes 365 kg of wood costing 9€ with a smoking time of around 21 hr.
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