Vol. It can remain afloat for more than three hours.” https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/26899/us-navy-destroyers-and-royal-navy-ships-use-these-big-blow-up-anti-ship-missile-decoys. For example, we should have much more Such tenacity would help them to overcome an enemy ready to fight until the bitter end and earned Fifth Fleet the moniker, “The Fleet that Came to Stay.”. Astonishingly, one of those ships is actually Copy in Admiral Turner Papers, NHHC Archives. Potter, Nimitz (Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1976), 376. The criticism was uncharacteristic of Spruance and more indicative of the strain put on him from the prolonged kamikaze exposure and loss of his Sailors. expendable. It pitted the U.S. Fifth Fleet—one of the mightiest armadas the world has seen—against thousands of Japanese kamikaze suicide aircraft, flown by young volunteers with the intent on crashing into U.S. ships for the glory of their emperor and the survival of their country. [10] USS Laffey, “Report of operations in support of the invasion of the Okinawa Gunto, Ryukyu Islands, 3/25/45-4/22/45, including enemy bombing & suicide plane attack on 4/16/45 & AA actions,” 42A. Toss in recessed chaff/flare dispensers and viola.Such USV’s could also help protect other vessels in other situations. "We just built a Ford for twice the cost of a Nimitz and the exact same performance (or less!). Of course, I would ensure the proper software be included so that all of these would be able to also hit surface targets.Off the side would be two Mark 32 Mod. Becton was unstinting in his praise for both groups, noting, “The performance of all gunnery personnel… was superb. It does no good to have redundant equipment if it's all tied to a single power source.This is not a great candidate for expendable picket duty. "raft"Yep, that could work. [7] COMPHIBPAC, “Suicide Plane Attacks,” 7 July 1945, 9. Vol. Outstanding analysis. The decoy itself is made of a highly radar-reflective material that confuses and distracts incoming anti-ship missiles. and start designing ships for combat, not peacetime cruises. There were 10 large coordinated kamikaze attacks between early April and mid-June totaling nearly 1,500 planes. And I know part of it is habitability. XIV(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 195. If an enemy submarine wants to announce it's presence by torpedoing a cheap, small, unmanned picket vessel (assuming we don't turn it into an ASW-bulked up Burke) then that's great. that penetrated the CAP screen. Combine that with a minimal speed advantage and you've got a low probability of kill.It's all about geometry of the intercept. Despite this threat from above, the initial stages of Okinawa proceeded as planned. The US Navy's dead exceeded its wounded, with 4,907 killed and 4,874 wounded, primarily from kamikaze attacks. At sea, 368 Allied ships—including 120 amphibious craft—were damaged while another 36—including 15 amphibious ships and 12 destroyers—were sunk during the Okinawa campaign. those of us who have grown up looking at Navy PR photos of ships sailing side THIS ACTION WAS THEREFORE THE FIRST REAL ACTION ENCOUNTERED BY 90 PERCENT OF THE CREW. The Navy should be exercising this all out to see what works best but I see no signs that they're even thinking about it. The USV would then return to “stealth mode” and change direction, leaving the missiles to impact harmlessly at the last known location. Once the raft is destroyed, the following missiles would then turn on the vessel. It will have ASW helos available. I think the idea has some potential and should be tested extensively but we know that's not USN way of doing biz anymore.... "Have we even tried to work with unmanned pickets?"NO! At 200 miles away from the defended area, to cover a 180° sector would require 16 ships (assuming each is spaced every 40 miles). Let me know if you come across any. Just as astounding to us, today, was the magnitude of the I don't know exactly what the Swedes got for $184MM, but my guess is that whatever it is is more capable than an LCS. The Okinawa picket stations were positioned close enough to The 265 US combat ships, alone, nearly equals the size of missile. as LCIs, LSMs, LSTs, aground off Pearl Harbor. or landing ship establish a ring of radar picket ships around the island and the invasion fleet With six eyeballed aimed guns firing 33 rounds a second each, that will put a wall of bullets in missile paths. By the engagement’s end, an estimated 3,665 Japanese sailors had lost their lives (including roughly 2,500 on board Yamato) compared to only 12 U.S. The sheer number of attacking aircraft represented what we Technology advancements would change how future wars to be conducted. I don't know what, if anything, has been added over the years but the delivered ship was pretty minimal with the lack of AAW being particularly noticeable. This post, and others, as well as history, are demonstrating just why so many escorts are needed.You'll recall I did a post on escorts demonstrating the need for large numbers of escorts and that was without considering dedicated pickets. establish a ring of radar picket ships around the island and the invasion fleet Lethality – We this partial Allied naval order of battle at Okinawa (1). Citing COMTASKFLOT Five, Okinawa Report, 20 Jul. So, what does the Okinawa Kamikaze and picket ship scenario It will be sunk less than one mile offshore in about 70 feet of water, near 16 other sunken ships already covered in marine life. recognition that the Kamikaze was the functional equivalent of a guided anti-ship The Japanese loss was staggering, loosing a total of 7,830 planes in three months. the picket ships did at Okinawa. "The Okinawa pickets were located 20-80 miles (mostly 50-80 miles) from the center of the defended area. The weapons density (and 'caliber') of our ships is pathetic. [4] Samuel Eliot Morison, History of the United States Naval Operations in World War II. The second would be an unarmed, radar reflective stealth ship. Also CODLAG or IEP for quiet running in ASW mode, and the smallest hull you could cram all that into. Naval analysis provided by ComNavOps, Commander - Naval Opinions. But I agree, hitting a fast moving missile head on will be difficult. To ensure the smooth functioning of this arrangement, clear delineations between Army and Navy commands needed to be established particularly since the campaign would eventually shift from an amphibious focus to the ground war. Much more meaningful and instructive than the fluff on USNI.org. The Osprey class MHCs were supposedly based on the Italian Lerici class. The gem of the Japanese fleet was pounded with five bombs and ten torpedoes before finally sinking to the bottom of the ocean at 1423. Id assume that part of being a CO is knowing your fields of fire for your point defense systems and that there are well-planned doctrinal maneuvers when a threat appears. ), or equivalent; no helo, no flight deck, no sonar, no gun, no nothing else. "Do you know if it's ever been tested against missiles? See this Chinese unmanned ship - smallest ship with AESA radar and VLS which can launch several different missiles. It is believed the photographer was either Seaman Len Schmidt or Harold I. bode well for the combat resilience of the Aegis system. Obviously, more ships will be needed to provide sufficient overlap/backup and reinforce the more likely avenues of attack. The 88 LCS(L)s assigned to picket stations had two sunk and 11 damaged [32] They also sustained their fair share of damage—all four of their fleet carriers were hit and damaged by kamikazes, but their steel decks fared better against the ensuing fires than the wooden ones of their American partners. medium (rocket) (LSM(R)), The “Army slow, methodical method of fighting” had led to an advance of only 4,000 yards in a month. operation. make losses ‘acceptable’. Ships Sunk or Damaged in World War II Ships Home. The need for major repairs mounted and personnel fatigue became a problem. The dramatically reduced response time were expected to produce significantly higher losses to US forces, and this was prior to the post-war discovery that the Japanese had a lot more aircraft than US intelligence believed to be the case.Arguably the situation of saturation attacks combined with very short response times implicit in the Kyushu scenario is directly applicable to a modern environment in which US forces will be confronting large numbers of supersonic (or faster) missiles in a potentially challenging EW environment. [5] Vincent O’Hara, “Operation Iceberg’s Mixed Legacy,” Naval History, April 2020, 16. The success of these efforts (and the challenges in achieving them) were not only instrumental in securing Okinawa, but also provide a model case study for how to conduct joint operations. I was wondering what your vessel would look like. aviators. warships, and damaged 368 other vessels at Okinawa. unarmored and weakly built ships that make up today’s fleet. If we want to add additional functions then the cost skyrockets and we can't have the numbers or expendability we need. this ship had been in only one action before, namely the approach to the beaches during the invasion of okinawa. For [30] Nimitz to wife, 26 April 1945. unbelievable salvos launched against our fleets. We get a free location data point on a sub and, if we're competent, they lose a submarine. When one considers the scale of the logistics at Okinawa it was simply just more of anything that had obtained in any other Pacific engagement, eg. There is a very serious need for some form of "missile dodge", ultrafast lock degrading or decoys or whatever else (ECM? Seven destroyer escorts were also completed as radar pickets. ships were doubled at the most threatened stations, and combat air patrols were provided as well. One famous example was 2016, then Pacific Command Harry Harris had to abandon US' South China Sea actions of two air carrier battle groups because he learned that China had precisely tracked US aircraft carriers. The US Combat Air Patrol (CAP) did an amazing Spruance was given authority to establish when the point of transition took place but, even so, inter-service rivalries needed to be set aside to achieve victory. forgotten just how many ships are required to form a survivable group. Their objective would be to secure the island of Okinawa, thus removing the last barrier standing between the U.S. forces and Imperial Japan. Only 22 attacking aircraft managed to penetrate the aerial Consider support (large) (LCS(L)) - Defending ships at Okinawa did not possess any weapon guidance comparable to reality because it drives our ship design sensor and weapons density, fire Every day spent slowly advancing meant another day that U.S. Navy ships lay open to kamikaze attack. problem. he US Navy is building a fleet of small unmanned vessels to to production, is there any other source of information that might allow us to Three hundred fifty U.S. crewmen died. [22], The Japanese willingness to essentially throw away its fleet in Ten-Go and its planes and pilots in kamikaze attacks was bred from desperation and military necessity. capacity of the US fleet. Thanks. The kamikaze attacks at Okinawa, as well as the fate of the Japanese fleet, should not be viewed as an historical aberration unique to the final stages of the war in the Pacific. their mistakes? Given Expendability - Various accounts put the losses to kamikazes at the Battle for Okinawa alone at 21 ships sunk, 217 damaged (43 to the point of being written off). Generals still insist on what they have learned in schools and past glories could lead the nation into ruin. "Then, gold plate it like the Navy always does. imagine a ship being blinded early in an engagement and being unable to So 4 SeaRAM, 4 CIWS and 4 quad MK 57 VLS (got to get something out of the research cost of the Zumwalt's) for 64 ESSM's on the smallest hull you can ideally WW2 Destroyer escort size?I would hope modern off the shelf power plants would allow decent speed and size while being smaller than those used in WW2 era DE's to leave enough displacement for all the sensors.Does that sound about right? The USV that we proscribe is not new; it was built as a manned vessel, was somewhat tested and could be quickly created and deployed fairly cheaply.The Sea Shadow was a Small Water Area Twin Hull (SWATH), prototype catamaran-style ship. Copy in Admiral Turner Papers, NHHC Archives. Have we even tried to work with unmanned pickets? allowed the pickets to keep fighting even after taking multiple hits. The Swedes, like every other country, subsidizes and plays various accounting games to seem better than they are. kites, though with limited success. surface groups but the pickets are going to be unarmed and unarmored. pickets provided early warning, fighter direction, and direct engagement. The USS Shaw explodes at Pearl Harbor on December 7. their task. What's needed, AT A MINIMUM, is a 4-carrier group to provide picket support and surface ship defense plus, AT A MINIMUM, another 4-carrier group to provide ground support. "[2] Present for parts of the battle, historian Samuel Eliot Morison actually witnessed kamikaze attacks firsthand. They suffered excruciating agony until given first aid; but if blown overboard, hours might elapse until a pharmacist’s mate could relieve them.”[4]. As you note, they weren't delivered with all designed capability installed. "No, let's not. considerations for us. is nearly non-existent. :), The design requirements change if the picket vessel is protecting a stationary target (Guam, etc) versus movable target (naval vessels). underwater and ‘mission killed’ by a single aircraft. The US Navy's dead exceeded its wounded, with 4,907 killed and 4,874 Large barges or spar type vessels with station keeping thrusters or moorings could be used for protecting stationary targets.Cost could be much lower if the propulsion equipment is kept to a minimum. Is the Hornet/AMRAAM effective against missiles? Today, with high subsonic or supersonic missiles, the engagement time for the CAP would be very short, meaning that the effectiveness of the CAP would be limited and they could not be expected to significantly attrite the attacking missiles. "I find it hard to believe that a 3000 ton ship sets the low end of the price range for a 600 ton ship"Well, here's another data point: the JHSV (Spearhead) costs $180-$200M per and that's a non-stealthy, aluminum, ferry with no radar, weapons, sonar, or any of the other things you'd like. Plus, if the bad guys figure out how to jam Aegis, we are in a world of hurt. system as well as a separate, technologically dissimilar type of radar as a It's from NavWeaps website and it's for the twin Compact version:"Tests conducted by the Italian Navy in 1976 indicated this weapon had 30% chance of destroying an incoming sub-sonic missile outside of 900 meters (1,000 yards).". This is a lesson we Some 34 US Navy ships fall victim. The problem becomes when you want to add to the AAW capability without giving up anything else in return. increase the number of sensors (redundancy) and types of sensors on our ships. $$$$$. Comments will be moderated for posts older than 7 days in order to reduce spam. very short response times"I've repeatedly stated that most attacks will be detected at the radar horizon (15-20 miles) and the subsequent engagement window will be very, very short (4 SAM shots and that's it).I like your comparison to Kyusu/Olympic but I haven't seen any US Navy plans to counter the aerial threat. [13] Joseph Alexander, “Hellish Prelude at Okinawa,” Naval History, April 2005, 5. The picket ships were Given the relatively small number of kamikaze aircraft that The flight deck is fairly small and may or may not meet USN standards for operating a SH-60 type helo.You know I'm no fan of the LCS or anything else the USN has built recently but we have to be fair and note that the Visby (which I'd take in a heartbeat over the LCS!) The ultimate development of radar picket While the We’ve truly forgotten the size of the force necessary to wage total And, ASW defenses would be equally important as one or two SSGNs could get close and launch a sneak attack. provide sufficient warning. (5)  From Wikipedia: At was used as a saturation attack with each of ten major attacks consisting of several There were three from the side and all three hit. Available on Fold3.com. Japan, too, fielded a large force, mainly aerial, along with The Navy, in contrast, envisions the unmanned You may quote material on this web page as long as you cite American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org, as the source. Okinawa, alone, What about the radar itself? For one thing, it is probably too small to be trekking across the Pacific, or even Atlantic, so it may not fit our deployment needs. They were utterly fearless in combatting fires, although continually imperiled by exploding ammunition..”[10]. The IJN Yamato, Japan's pride and joy and the largest battleship ever built, sails from the Inland Sea on a suicide mission at Okinawa. Immediately after, the ground force split. "Good idea. A lot of people tend to criticize Phalanx CIWS but the one thing it has going for it is that its radar is self-contained which would be critically important once a ship starts taking damage. Vol. requires huge numbers of munitions – dwarfing any estimates we may have. fact, the situation is far worse today due to the complete absence of armor on [1] 5F Action Report, Ryukyus through 27 May 1945, 44. If you have to choose, you've already lost! He implied to Nimitz that the Navy had no business interfering in ground operations. As a result, Sailors and ships sustained the longest period of prolonged combat of the war. Both were well-worn by this point in the war, but the threat at Okinawa required adjustments to each. Again, this reminds us that we’ve completely The satellite control currently used on that vessel would be included. (3). XIV(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 95. I agree that we have serious procurement problems, just have a hard time believing they are that bad. A better choice might be a non-nuclear generated EMP pulse which the military has, at least, done some development work on, if not produced an actual weapon. (5), Just as astounding to us, today, was the magnitude of the Missouri (BB-63) about to be hit by a Japanese A6M Zero kamikaze, while operating off Okinawa on 11 April 1945. One thing that occured to me is a comparison of ship vs aircraft speed. wounded, primarily from kamikaze attacks. Regrettably, these estimates proved to be quite on the mark, with the prolonged land battle enabling the Japanese to launch numerous air attacks that proved even more effective than anticipated. Each radar picket would ideally have had 4–6 DDs and 6 support craft with similar speed and maneuvering capabilities, but the large number of picket ships lost made this impossible. "Agreed, but I'd double up on the ESSMs. Such tactics had previously been deployed at Leyte Gulf, Luzon and Lingayen, and Iwo Jima, but not on a particularly alarming scale. 5 mounted in an upright position to function like a VLS (to save space without requiring a larger hull). Amtracks from U.S. task force coming ashore on Okinawa, Ryukyus Islands, 1 April 1945. [17] Okinawa proved that the fleet could keep close to hostile shores “for protracted periods at distances over 1,000 miles from our nearest base. As you recall from previous posts, the Navy intends to [25] Albert Christman, The Grand Experiment at Inyokern: Narrative of the Naval Ordnance Test Station During the Second World War and the Immediate Postwar Years (Washington, DC: Naval History Division, 1978), 244. our ships – far beyond anything imagined by today’s designers. Especially with the distances involved. The Battle of Okinawa often evokes images of psychologically spent Soldiers and Marines engaged in a grueling land battle. The US sent all that against an already nearly beaten Japan who was far from a 'peer' adversary.If China strikes I have a terrible vision the losses the US Navy will sustain in the first 24 hours will make Pearl Harbor a joke. Despite the tensions that presented themselves at the command level, the Army-Navy-Marine team ultimately learned to work effectively. I'd have been willing to sacrifice the flight deck to mount more weapons since a flight deck with no hangar is of limited value, especially in USN overseas use. That should only double or triple the cost.I just do not understand this obsession (by everyone, not just you) with making every ship a do-everything, win the war single-handed ship.C'mon, think this through. [12] Spruance also supported the radar pickets by ordering the seizure of small islands off the coast of Okinawa to establish extended fighter direction and early radar warning sites. modern anti-ship missiles are likely to be even more destructive given the highest of the Pacific war: 4,907 sailors and officers killed, and 4,824 "send out a sub or two and lay waste to your whole picket system. I had forgotten about that one but, yes, I'm somewhat familiar with it. Nimitz responded “Yes, but ground thought it may be, I’m losing a ship and a half a day. What about power? Given the very limited And their design weapons mix may not be what works for us. "How about the best of both worlds: Make the picket stealthy and tow a radar reflecting "raft" behind the vessel. XIV(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 202-209. "Okay, so let's give them six ASW helos, a flight deck, a powerful hull mounted sonar, a VDS, a towed array, VL-ASROC, triple torpedo tubes, an undersea combat control software suite, ASW command and control centers, sonar consoles and operators, and P-8 control and communications facilities. The Chinese Type 055 destroyer/cruiser, If we have more sub tasks than subs then we need to build more subs instead of allowing our sub fleet to dip into the 40s, as we're doing. chance and will be quickly eliminated leaving the core group with no early backup to the Aegis arrays. LSVs, etc. The armed versions would lie within the avenues of attack, funneling those missiles into kill zones. Sources differ regarding the number of ships sunk by kamikaze aircraft during World War II. station of 5000 yds radius. He discusses five primary factors: (1) nature of the kamikaze attacks, (2) improper use of support gunboats, (3) assignment of ships ill-suited for task, (4) failure to establish land-based radar at the earliest possible times, and (5) crew fatigue. engagement and fighter direction assistance. Have you come across any? saturation attacks. vulnerabilities. Armor – The modern guided missile in terms of destructive impact. It was, in fact, a preview of the future of naval warfare. The Navy has not even begun to think about this problem as far as I can tell. None of these proved nearly as effective as the aerial attacks (they only damaged a few ships at Okinawa), but they were a clear demonstration that the IJN was more than willing to sacrifice its sailors in the final stages of the war. It's interesting to contemplate. instantly sunk from a single hit. assess the concept? I’m pretty sure the Navy hasn’t thought this through. Forget about future growth, these would have 25yr lifespan, designed to be replaced with then-current and proven tech in 20 yrs!! I've stated that we need not a better Aegis that can spot a mosquito at a thousand miles but a better engagement radar that can distinguish a real target at 5-15 miles from a sky full of debris. Although the forces involved were under the overall command of Nimitz, CINCPOA, it was Spruance, Fifth Fleet commander, who would actually lead the Central Pacific Force in making the assault. arrays are large, exposed targets and likely to be seriously damaged and 12/22/10. A in troops used and landed, supplies provided, naval bombardment, bombs dropped, ships used, ( 1,300 ) Japanese aircraft destroyed ( 7,800 ), 16 ships sunk, and more people killed than were killed by the dropping of the two US Atomic bombs. today’s longer ranged anti-air missiles, mutual support may be possible but (2). Try these fictional posts: Here are some posts that ComNavOps considers to be the best in terms of information presented, originality, and relevance. Tennessee (BB-43) bombarding Okinawa with her 14/50 main battery guns, as LVTs in the foreground carry troops to the invasion beaches, 1 April 1945. "This is a fallacy born of forgotten lessons. That she was able to remain afloat, let alone steam under her own power to Pearl Harbor less than a day after the grim events of 19 March, is a testament to both her crew’s mental fortitude and the efficiency of their damage control efforts under the most extreme of circumstances. The A-400 was a ship the rest of the world expects. Donald Gary led a number of his fellow Sailors to safety through smoke-filled corridors and further braved hazardous conditions to raise steam in one of the ship’s firerooms. engagement and fighter direction assistance. Future naval warfare will, without a doubt, feature massive, Their ships suffered equally, with 36 ships sunk and more than 350 more sustaining varying degrees of damage. Additionally, some 700 American aircraft were lost in operations at Okinawa. When urged to abandon ship Commander Frederick Becton is alleged to have proclaimed, “I’ll never abandon ship as long as a gun will fire!” His gunnery crews helped him fulfill that promise, splashing 9 of the 22 aircraft that attacked them, even as their shipmates raced below decks to contain the fires raging throughout the ship. www.USMM.org ©1998 - 2010. With 4 of Spruance’s 11 large carriers out of action within the first week of the Okinawa campaign, the Royal Navy carriers readily filled the void and covered the islands between Taiwan and Okinawa. The Okinawa is a tugboat built in 1953 for the U.S. Army with an interesting wheelhouse and sleeping quarters for more than a dozen crew members. It also had a bow thruster so could lose both props and still move. Admiral Chester Nimitz made the difficult decision to relieve Spruance and his staff before the campaign concluded because of combat fatigue. remaining Kamikazes would have been able to continue on to the amphibious Any hope of success relied on the element of surprise, but there was little chance of that. Although I would like some ASW capability if possible, this is mainly due to my brain trying to turn this drone into a ship. I'm slapping my gray matter around as we speak.Do you think the L3 Harris vessel would function with your layout?https://www.marinetechnologynews.com/news/awards-unmanned-vessel-contract-604107. Built and tested in the 1980’s by Skunk Works, it was a successful design. Guts of a Destroyer, Okinawa. factor that into our ship designs and cost and we need to accept that naval Towing such an item could interfere with the regular workings of the towing vessel.2. On 16 April 1945, Laffey (DD-724) endured six kamikaze attacks and four hits by … It is estimated that nearly one out of seven naval deaths in the entire war occurred during these two bloody months off Okinawa. Naval History and Heritage Command photograph, NH 62696. Her crew heroically saved their ship, but more than 800 Sailors died in the attack. Here's the only test information I could find from a quick search. Chester Nimitz Papers, NHHC Archives. During the conference, he praised the Army’s tactics and “magnificent performance.”[29] Nimitz confessed in a private letter to his wife in the midst of the campaign that questions of the relationship between the Army and Navy were taking their toll on him. “Buster” Campbell. [26] E.B. Potter reported Bucker and Nimitz clashed during the visit. As April 7 rolled around, the last remnants of the Japanese Navy were met by overwhelming Navy airpower. But I don't think it's a terrible starting point. But I do think it is a sad commentary that the Swedes have packed more firepower into a 600T hull than we did into a 3000-4000T LCS. Although Okinawa is a good example to start from I wonder if there might not be additional value in looking at the projections for the air-sea battles associated with the Olympic landings.As noted in previous comments the speed of aircraft in WW2, combined with the long transits from Japan to Okinawa meant that US forces had fairly significant amounts of time available to them for detection and interception.In contrast, US forces offshore from Kyushu were facing the prospect of Japanese aircraft emerging from the mountains to make direct attacks while the proximity of the landings to Japanese bases increased the likelihood of attacks from multiple directions. The attacks tested the nerves of even veteran sailors as 26 ships were sunk and another 164 damaged. Why? That's $1B+. Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher, commander, Task Force 58, is highlined from a destroyer to Randolph (CV-15) via boatswain's chair, 15 May 1945. "For the Super Hornet, the APG-79 AESA radar functions for both air-to-air and air-to-ground, so I'm also hopeful that it can direct look-down shoot-down successfully. "Now, the opposite approach also has potential merit. It later hit Japanese forces ashore on Leyte, served at Luzon, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, and was the first of the older battleships to sail into Tokyo Bay to witness Japan’s surrender in 1945. ships was the high speed, nuclear powered submarine USS Triton which could of a ship that was able to keep firing despite taking half a dozen or so 355 kamikaze aircraft and 344 escort fighters and lasted for five hours. [32] 5F Action Report, Ryukyus through 27 May 1945, A-2.
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