In particular, they address the “tail” of poor public services providers that had previously held a monopoly over their jurisdictions and had not faced contestability. How do individual “hybrids” (e.g., doctors who take on part-time management roles) balance the different logics of professionalism and managerialism and reconstruct roles, careers, and even perhaps their underlying identity (McGivern, Currie, Ferlie, Fitzgerald, & Waring, 2015)? In return, universities have been compelled by the sectoral regulator (the Higher Education Funding Council for England) to implement mechanisms to increased voice to students (such as student experience surveys) and to publish key performance information on their websites (e.g., number of contact hours, external examiners’ reports) to inform student choice. Martin, Armstrong, Aveling, Herbert, and Dixon-Woods (2015) explored the fate of attempts to restimulate professional logics in service improvement projects in the English NHS to secure genuine professional engagement with change. International fashion setters in the NPM field may include actors such as the World Bank and management consultants (Saint Martin, 2004; Osborne & Gaebler, 1992) along with the texts coming from business school faculty (Porter & Teisberg, 2006; Ferlie et al., 2016). 0 There was a prospect in principle of market entry by independent healthcare providers who could win contracts from the purchasers. For example, U.K. undergraduate students now pay higher tuition fees than previously. The term was first introduced by academics in the United Kingdom and Australia to explain approaches. The final section explored possible post-NPM models and so was more forward looking (although it is also possible that NPM remains embedded, as explored later in the conclusion). NPM reforms express this important shift within the more concrete domain of the organization of the state. A second explanation could lie in the smaller scale of the American public sector so that the political “pay off” from—and therefore top-level political interest in—public management reform activity was correspondingly lower (Hood, 1995a). The United States does not, then, appear as a centrally important jurisdiction on the NPM radar screen. NPM reforms typically reinforce the dominance of a short-term, target- and efficiency-driven, and operational-management-oriented agenda. A second implication of agency theory lies in the governance domain, specifically the strengthening of the oversight role of the board in monitoring the performance of senior public managers. Some private sector management texts appear to have had strong impact on public managers’ styles of working, associated with the increased receptivity associated with NPM reforms. First, and firmly located in the mainstream camp, Boyne, Meier, O’Toole, and Walker (2006) argued that agency performance has now become a—or even the—major question in public management scholarship. A counterargument is that arguably the elaborate contracting processes associated with NPM reforms reopen the door to corruption. It serves as an expert and independent voice in reviewing and commenting on the public expenditure plans produced by elected politicians. Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Business and Management. A smaller number of “super agencies” have emerged with responsibility for the delivery of services across whole fields and reduced internal fragmentation. Executive agencies proved difficult to sustain in politically sensitive fields in which ministers wanted to reassert direct hierarchical control. Fourthly, the NPM is based on strengthening management, directed against supposedly over mighty public sector producers. By 2010, the number of agencies had fallen to 84 (but still employed 62% of that staff). Thirdly, NPM reforms foster greater choice and give a greater voice to the users of public services, who are now construed as customers (more than as citizens). The core question is, will all countries eventually converge in a global NPM reform wave (Hood, 1995b), or will national variation remain strong, reflecting conditions of path dependence? Hood (1991) offered a high-level analytical overview of the main defining principles of the NPM movement—including but going well beyond the narrow focus on privatization and marketization apparent in political discourse—and related them to a rising set of political values that prioritized efficiency and value for money. There is strong international variation, and not all countries have gone down the NPM route (e.g., France and Germany remain largely NPM averse; Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2011). There has been a lively debate over whether NPM reforms have had beneficial effects or not. As “New Public Management” enters middle age, scholarly attention has moved to some degree from descriptive mapping and a priori critiques to the analysis of surprises and paradoxes associated with recent and contemporary public service reforms. How can these “medium” levels of NPM impact in the United States be explained, when key American authors (e.g., Niskanen, 1971) have written influential texts that first developed basic public choice ideas? NPM reforms in the United Kingdom have typically shrunk the scope of elected local government and expanded that of appointed agencies. New Public Management: Theory, Ideology, and Practice & 887 Even though Hood (1991, p. does not reject the applicability of NPM to a number of countries. %%EOF For example, Andrews et al. The basic idea of NPM is that market-oriented management of the public sector will lead to greater cost-efficiency for governments, without having negative side-effects on other objectives and considerations. Hood (1995a) identified a cluster of Anglo-Saxon countries as “high-impact” NPM states (e.g., United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand) but also unexpected candidates such as Sweden. hÞÌYms›8þý|¼›NoA 37qޚ¶iÚÆm’^šª­$\1¸€Óæ~ýíJƱ“öfnnj In the higher education sector, vice chancellors were encouraged to act more as chief executives (Jarrett, 1985): whether an individual vice chancellor chooses to self-describe as the “chief executive” is a revealing linguistic choice. The Swedish case displays a trong emphasis on the principles of user responsiveness and free choice, for example, in local government when purchaser provider arrangements were brought in (Foss Hansen, 2013, p. 124). Halligan (2011, p. 87) characterizes the New Zealand reform package as based on two main principles. policy direction; 2) who shall do it, i.e. Secondly, NPM reforms seek to create more pressure for higher public agency performance. But the discipline of public management has also made a contribution to the literature, notably at the meso level of the agency. A good example is the moving of the old U.K. polytechnic schools (offering more vocational degrees) in the higher education sector from local government control in 1992 and their re-creation as the so-called New Universities and as independent corporations. After nearly thirty years of NPM scholarship, a question is, how has this corpus of work evolved over time? Agency theory (see the overview by Eisenhardt, 1989) argues that the relationship between a principal (shareholders in a private firm, an elected minister in a ministry) and agents (salaried managers in the private firm, civil servants in the ministry) can be structured through tight contracts, of either an explicit or a psychological form (Boston, 2011, p. 26): “accordingly, the question of how best to construct, monitor and enforce contracts (or agreed relationships) between principals and agents is both extremely common and an issue of enduring significance.” Principals and agents may have different assumptions, and agents are typically seen as more risk averse since they have fewer alternatives. Extensive key performance indicator (KPI) data on core agency targets (e.g., on examination results in schools or waiting times in hospitals) were routinely collected and passed up to the surveying national central regulator for evaluation, classification, and publication, a process that was facilitated by the rapidly growing technological power of information technology systems (Zuboff, 1988). Subsequent post-NPM reforms shifted away from promoting general management back to a broader and softer notion of leadership (e.g., Berwick, 1994; Llewellyn, 2001), which might come from professional managerial hybrids (e.g., headmasters in schools) rather than general managers. For example, the Office for Budgetary Responsibility in the United Kingdom defines its mission as follows: “It is the duty of the Office to examine and report on the sustainability of the public finances” (http://www.budgetresponsibility.org.uk). 321–331) provided an analytic history of what they see as the main public management reforms there since the 1970s. Much of the NPM literature comes from political science, often exploring processes at the macro level of the nation-state. Keywords: governance, New Public Management, managerialism, policy reform, public choice theory, decentralization, autonomous agency, accountability, administrative ethics, social entitlement. There appears to be more mileage in some of the research themes introduced in this section, notably including the need for more work on the strategic management of NPM style public agencies. Yet some pro-NPM diffusion forces that may promote global convergence need to be considered seriously. Secondly, and again within a broadly institutionalist framing, the diffusion of NPM reforms, texts, and knowledges can be used as an important concrete example in the wider exploration of the international diffusion of management knowledge (Sahlin-Anderson & Engwall, 2002a, 2002b). ÜñB—$„ÃXb!t|ק¦Èñx±x¡ïxÌu óîùô„9œÆa܂S“pB&pB:‘˨)r"Õ¸€±šËBVIžÁ(MaOÝ&õ¢wþ »î…÷‡{ »Þ…Kù^>“Ivº^ÂÁ"›P¯wså08vPNdv­H–j—ÏŸ_â £—cçJ¦¥‚7pœ3™ÂîH‹¿}çTÅBaþÆñ`<2µñY~EÉL û?ªãJV Croft, Currie, and Lockett (2015), by contrast, were more pessimistic about the ability of (in this study) nurse managers to maintain an effective balance between the two different roles. For example, the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency in Swansea maintains national registers of all U.K. drivers (45 million) and vehicles (38 million). Also toward the mainstream end of the research spectrum lie attempts to study public agencies through generic strategic management writing, sometimes still in a sectorally adapted form (Moore, 1995; Ferlie & Ongaro, 2015; Rosenberg, Hansen, & Ferlie, 2016). Firstly, academics’ continuing search for the next “big” reform wave in public management (Moore, 1995; Newman, 2001; Rhodes, 2007; Dunleavy et al., 2006) raises the question of whether the NPM has really been “deinstitutionalized” (Oliver, 1992) or whether the NPM paradigm remains embedded, even if dysfunctionally so (Lodge & Gill, 2011; Trenholm & Ferlie, 2013). There has been extensive decentralization of service delivery responsibility to local government. New public management (NPM) was introduced in the western world with a sole purpose of reforming the public sector and its approaches in managing affairs of the state. Knight (2002) has criticized their governance model, which essentially adopts that of the Anglo-Saxon private firm: there is a strong vice chancellor who is expected to operate as a CEO, balanced by a small and senior group of nonexecutives, usually drawn from the business sector and deliberately recruited from outside the academic sector. Freidson (1985, 2001) later revised his original professional dominance thesis to concede there was some movement away from it, but this change was seen as less radical than the analysis provided by more critical deprofessionalization authors (McKinlay & Arches, 1985; McKinlay & Stoeckle, 1988). The New Public Management Approach and Crisis States resources on management and paperwork rather than on front-line service provision. Sæì -Ä2à`ºÏ ÀÈÃqš)q7£ãE†Œ»Y4™.2f3™0}czÏ\ÀôBFSp/K‡Š¨¹âñ:Æ¥g°p@چ%äcF ~` g#}Ò You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Now, the origin of this new term was to propose a new point of view towards the organizational design in the public sector, however after a decade, the meaning of this term in discussions and debates became many. A first major criticism is that NPM’s guiding values favor efficiency over democracy to an excessive extent. This perspective supports a move—especially for senior public-management posts—away from nationally agreed pay scales to more individualized contracts to ensure “pay for performance.” Senior public managers could and should be incentivized to hit the key performance indicators (KPIs) that are set. New Public Management, eBook de . Interagency fragmentation was a negative feature in the New Zealand case (Halligan, 2011), which later was unpicked. Nevertheless, the point remains that there is now strong diversity in academic management writing incorporating various mainstream but also more critical approaches. Their focus is often at the macro level of the nation-state and may even involve the comparative analysis of states (Hood, 1991, 1995; Lodge & Gill, 2011). endstream endobj 84 0 obj <> endobj 85 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[21.0 21.0 474.543 687.142]/Type/Page>> endobj 86 0 obj <>stream It can be seen as broadly anticapitalist in orientation and open to various theoretical currents from the wider field of social science. According to Hood, ‘‘like many other philosophies, NPM was presented as a framework The decade of the 1980s witnessed major changes in the management of public services in various countries, including the extreme cases of the United Kingdom (Hood, 1991), New Zealand (Boston, Martin, Pallot, & Walsh, 1996), and Sweden (Foss Hansen, 2013). The resource-based view of the firm approach has analyzed the (sometimes problematic) acquisition, internalization, and use of knowledge within public agencies, in particular the related resource-based-view concepts of “dynamic capabilities” (Casebeer, Reay, Dewald, & Pablo, 2010) and “absorptive capacity” (Harvey et al., 2010). Bureaucrats are further supposed to serve the public interest and display a duty of service to the government, rather than pursue their private interests. NPM reforms sought to promote high public agency performance. The New Public Management (NPM) began life as a conceptual device invented for purposes of structuring scholarly discussion of contemporary changes in the organization and management of executive government. The pay of vice chancellors rose considerably; yet they also faced more performance pressures, job insecurity, and turnover. One implication is that ministers, as political principals, should find novel policy instruments to increase their levels of “real control” over their civil servants who were only nominally their agents but often in practice engaged in bureau building and private agendas. One political-science-based explanation for NPM’s weaker internal impact highlights the separation of powers between different branches of United States government (executive, legislative, and judicial) and also the devolution of many competences from the federal to the state level that restrict the ability of the president to engage in centralized top-down reforming. The term new public management was coined by scholars from UK and Australia (Hood 1991 and Hood and Jackson 1991), who were working in the in the areas of public administration. Fourth, and as already noted, NPM reforms are often seen as a policy instrument that can promote good governance and increased transparency in developing countries, where there may be inherited problems with extensive government and high levels of corruption that make simple donations of aid ineffective. This book offers an original, comprehensive and multidisciplinary analysis of the impact of the New Public Management in the UK, and situates these analyses in a broader comparative perspective. Although the NPM is indeed in its mature phase, three suggestions for contained areas of future research work were made. Efficiency drives by themselves can be seen as relatively crude and as predating NPM. The lively debate about the possible advantages and disadvantages of NPM reforms will now be reviewed. The first was the separation within central government of distinct policy and delivery roles, and the second was the identification of specific functions with specialized organizations. Two brief vignettes of non-U.K. countries that also have high-impact NPM reforms are now presented to illustrate their international reach. The NPR included both a “savings and downsizing theme” (NPM orthodox) and a second “empowerment and reinvention” theme (associated with alternative and softer approaches), and some tensions were evident between them (Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2011, p. 326). New Public Management (NPM), took the business or market model as the standard for measuring government success and has applied it in successive … Turnover rates rise when senior managers in public agencies that are deemed to be failing are cleared out in turnaround regimes (Harvey, Jas, Walshe, & Skelcher, 2010). Models should still be customized to public services contexts management reforming remained strongly evident internationally the agency are they as... The bureaucratic mode as expressing an attachment to rational legality and as the main public or. 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