The Western Apache live primarily in east central Arizona, in the United States. [19] The Plains migration theory associates the Apache peoples with the Dismal River culture, an archaeological culture known primarily from ceramics and house remains, dated 1675–1725, which has been excavated in Nebraska, eastern Colorado, and western Kansas. Tonto Apache speakers are traditionally bilingual in Western Apache and Yavapai language . ", "Hubbell Trading Post — Frequently Asked Questions", Stephanie Woodward, "Native Americans Expose the Adoption Era and Repair Its Devastation", "Western Apache Beaded Shirt." [18], The Spanish described Plains dogs as very white, with black spots, and "not much larger than water spaniels. It consists of 85 acres (344,000 m²). Many Apache peoples joined together several local groups into "bands". Apache language assistance is provided at all Apache voting precincts. This means if one is a male, then one's brother is called -kʼis and one's sister is called -´-ląh. The White Mountain Apache use the term Dilzhę́’é to refer to the Bylas, San Carlos, and Tonto Apache. All Apache peoples lived in extended family units (or family clusters); they usually lived close together, with each nuclear family in separate dwellings. Below is a description of Chiricahua wickiups recorded by anthropologist Morris Opler: The home in which the family lives is made by the women and is ordinarily a circular, dome-shaped brush dwelling, with the floor at ground level. Both groups were hunter-gatherers, but were so similar here that scholars are seldom able to distinguish between their campsites.[5]. An uneasy peace between the Apache and the new citizens of the United States held until the 1850s. To build it, long fresh poles of oak or willow are driven into the ground or placed in holes made with a digging stick. Coronado observed the Plains people wintering near the Pueblo in established camps. By 1835 Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps (see scalping), but certain villages were still trading with some bands. Henderson, Richard. There is a single word for grandchild (regardless of sex): -tsóyí̱í̱. The Tonto Apache Tribe is currently in the process of enacting key provisions of SORNA. When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband. Minks, weasels, wildcats and wolves were not eaten but hunted for their body parts. Warfare between the Apache peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache cultures. They overlapped in the Upper Verde.[11]. Most commonly, Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. ), Southern Tonto (lived in the Tonto Basin from the Salt River in south northward along and over the East Verde River, including the Sierra Ancha, Bradshaw Mountains and Mazatzal Mountains – like the Northern Tonto Apache with the Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya – they formed with the Guwevkabaya/Kwevkepaya bands of Yavapai bilingual mixed-tribal Southern Tonto Apache-Guwevkabaya/Kwevkepaya bands with common headmen. Feelings of individuals concerning this practice spoke of social obligation and spontaneous generosity. They have dogs which they load to carry their tents, poles, and belongings. Chiricahuas in a -´-ląh relationship observed great restraint and respect toward that relative; cousins (but not siblings) in a -´-ląh relationship may practice total avoidance. The Yavapai-Apache Nation is the amalgamation of two historically distinct tribal people; the Yavepe (Central Yavapai), Wipukepa (Wipukapaya) (Northeastern Yavapai) and Kewevkapaya (Southeastern Yavapai) People and the Tonto Apache (Dilzhe’e Apache), each of whom occupied the Upper Verde prior to European invasion. Morris Opler (1975) has suggested that Hoijer's original formulation that Jicarilla and Lipan in an Eastern branch was more in agreement with the cultural similarities between these two and the differences from the other Western Apachean groups. Schroeder, Albert H. (1974b). Although the following activities were not distinguished by Europeans or Euro-Americans, Apache tribes made clear distinctions between raiding (for profit) and war. Bilingual teachers are often employed in the lower elementary grades, to expedite this goal, but the tendency toward children learning to speak only English, mingled with occasional Spanish, remains dominant. Additionally, there are separate words for cross-cousins: -zeedń "cross-cousin (either same-sex or opposite-sex of speaker)", -iłnaaʼaash "male cross-cousin" (only used by male speakers). Local groups were headed by a chief, a male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation. The Tonto Apache Reservation is located on the southern outskirts of Payson, Arizona. In a detailed study of New Mexico Catholic Church records, David M. Brugge identifies 15 tribal names which the Spanish used to refer to the Apache. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. [25] The Army sent this band and the Chiricahua scouts who had tracked them to military confinement in Florida at Fort Pickens and, subsequently, Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. Skunks were eaten only in emergencies. (1938). The term Tonto is encountered the more frequently in anthropology literature, especially older works, than Dilzhe’e. The two distinctly different languages intermixed and overlapped. The degree of avoidance differed in different Apache groups. Many Apache ceremonies use masked representations of religious spirits. In the post-war era, the US government arranged for Apache children to be taken from their families for adoption by white Americans in assimilation programs.[26]. (2010b) "Cycles of Renewal, Transportable Assets: Aspects of Ancestral Apache Housing". http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/10/. The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type. Though raiding had been a traditional way of life for the Apache, Mexican settlers objected to their stock being stolen. Opler, Morris E. (1983a). The neighboring Western Apache ethnonymfor them was Koun'nde ("wild rough People"), f… Yavapai were described as taller, of more muscular build, well-proportioned and thickly featured while the Tonto Apaches were slight and less muscular, smaller of stature and finely featured. Lipan and Kiowa-Apache are nearly extinct. Thus sites where early Southern Athabaskans may have lived are difficult to locate and even more difficult to firmly identify as culturally Southern Athabaskan. Two terms are used for same-sex and opposite-sex siblings. All tribes practiced sororate and levirate marriages. The Tonto Apache are the direct descendants of the Dilzhe'e Apache who lived in the Payson vicinity long before the arrival of Europeans. Archaeologists are finding ample evidence of an early proto-Apache presence in the Southwestern mountain zone in the 15th century and perhaps earlier. The name Tonto is considered offensive by some, due to its etymology and meaning in Spanish, although that usage was derived from their learning the names by which neighboring groups referred to the Dilzhe’e. The ethnic Europeans referred to the Yavapai and Apache together as Tonto or Tonto Apache. Pinal (also Pinaleño). On the larger level, the Western Apache organized bands into what Grenville Goodwin called "groups". Found 0 sentences matching phrase "Tonto".Found in 0 ms. The elders of the Tonto Apache tribe are doing their very best to sustain both their language and culture by passing old customs and beliefs down to their tribe’s younger members. Since then, other anthropologists (e.g. Several extended families worked together as a "local group", which carried out certain ceremonies, and economic and military activities. No fences existed to keep people in or out. Both the Yavapai and Western Apaches lived in Tonto Basin. Many Western Apache reject such a classification. 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